The tool replaces parameters of sort real from the linear process specification by parameters of sort Comp, which is an structured sort with three constants smaller, equal and larger. They represent that certain pairs of real expressions must be smaller, equal or larger to each other. If the resulting linear process does not contain MAY-actions, it is strongly bisimilar to the input lps. Otherwise, the result is may-bisimilar to the original.


Consider an LPS with the following process equation.

act  step, urgent, reset;
proc P(x:Real) = sum y:Real.(x<y)->step.P(y)
               + sum y:Real.(x<y && x<2)->urgent.P(y)
               + reset.P(0);

init P(0);

The tool transforms this to the following strongly bisimilar LPS (where it must be noted that in this particular case the condition x>=0 has been added to each summand in the input LPS).

sort Comp = struct smaller?is_smaller | equal?is_equal | larger?is_larger;

act  step,urgent,reset;

proc P(xi,xi00: Comp) =
       !is_smaller(xi) ->
         reset .
         P(equal, smaller)
     + (is_smaller(xi00) && !is_smaller(xi)) ->
         urgent .
         P(larger, equal)
     + (!is_smaller(xi) && is_smaller(xi00)) ->
         urgent .
         P(larger, smaller)
     + (is_smaller(xi00) && !is_smaller(xi)) ->
         urgent .
         P(larger, larger)
     + (is_smaller(xi00) && !is_smaller(xi)) ->
         step .
         P(larger, equal)
     + (!is_smaller(xi) && is_smaller(xi00)) ->
         step .
         P(larger, smaller)
     + !is_smaller(xi) ->
         step .
         P(larger, larger);

init P(equal, smaller);

Manual page for lpsrealelm


lpsrealelm   [OPTION]... [INFILE [OUTFILE]]


Remove Real numbers from the linear process specification (LPS) in INFILE and write the result to OUTFILE. If INFILE is not present, stdin is used.

Command line options


perform at most NUM iterations

-QNUM , --qlimitNUM

limit enumeration of quantifiers to NUM iterations. (Default NUM=1000, NUM=0 for unlimited).

-rNAME , --rewriterNAME

use rewrite strategy NAME:


jitty rewriting


compiled jitty rewriting


jitty rewriting with prover


append timing measurements to FILE. Measurements are written to standard error if no FILE is provided

Standard options

-q , --quiet

do not display warning messages

-v , --verbose

display short intermediate messages

-d , --debug

display detailed intermediate messages


display intermediate messages up to and including level

-h , --help

display help information


display version information


Jan Friso Groote and Jeroen Keiren