This tool is intended to solve parameterised boolean equation systems (PBES) using a parity game solver. This is achieved by instantiating the PBES to a boolean equation system. The resulting BES is equivalent to some parity games such that a boolean equation is true if and only if the corresponding vertex of the parity game is won by player even. A parity game solver can be used to obtain the winning players for all vertices of that parity game. This also determines the solution for the initial equation of the (P)BES. That solution is then printed to standard output. The tool also accepts a BES or a parity game in PGSolver format directly.



pbespgsolve   [OPTION]... [INFILE]


Reads a file containing a (P)BES or a max-parity game in PGSolver format. A PBES input is first instantiated to a BES; from which a parity game can be obtained. A parity game solver is then used to solve this parity game. The solution of the first vertex, which also defines the solution of initial equation of the (P)BES, is printed to standard output. When INFILE is not present, standard input is used.

Command line options

-C , --cycle

Eliminate cycles


use input format FORMAT:


PBES in internal format


BES in PGSolver format


PBES in textual (mCRL2) format

-L , --loop

Eliminate self-loops

-g , --onlygenerate

Only generate the BES without solving

-QNUM , --qlimit=NUM

limit enumeration of universal and existential quantifiers in data expressions to NUM iterations (default NUM=10, NUM=0 for unlimited).

-rNAME , --rewriter=NAME

use rewrite strategy NAME:


jitty rewriting


compiled jitty rewriting


jitty rewriting with prover

-c , --scc

Use scc decomposition

-sNAME , --solver-type=NAME

Use the solver type NAME:


Small progress measures


Alternative implementation of small progress measures


Recursive algorithm


Priority promotion (experimental)


append timing measurements to FILE. Measurements are written to standard error if no FILE is provided

-e , --verify

Verify the solution

Standard options

-q , --quiet

do not display warning messages

-v , --verbose

display short log messages

-d , --debug

display detailed log messages


display log messages up to and including level; either warn, verbose, debug or trace

-h , --help

display help information


display version information


display help information, including hidden and experimental options


Maks Verver and Wieger Wesselink; Michael Weber