Generic Driving Actuator


A Generic Driving Actuator is a device capable of driving a vehicle fully automatically using the same interface as a human driver does, e.g. using steering wheels and the throttle and brake pedals. It is used for driving tests that are hazardous, or require very precise steering capability. In this project the safety-critical software for such a Generic Driving Actuator was designed. First a model was made using process algebra with data, and subsequently properties that were formulated as modal formulas were verified. During the process a few design with possibly fatal consequences were noted and could be repaired. The final model for the software satisfies all requirements.

Technical details

The requirements on the software of the Generic Driving Actuator were checked.

Type of verification

Deadlock and safety properties violations detection by explicit state-space generation (breadth-first search). The CADP toolset was used to model-check the properties formulated in regular alternation-free modal µ-calculus. Some problems were found in the original specification and two contradictory requirements were found during the verification.

Data size

The original specification was not possible to generate. By using CADP toolset it was possible to generate one transition system from several communicating transition systems. With this tool it was possible to first reduce parts of the transition system, before combining these parts. The resulting transition system only had 1.5 million states.

Equipment (computers, CPU, RAM)

Verification took 8 hours on a 32bits linux machine with 4GByte of memory.


The model is available as an appendix to [MDC07a].

Organizational context
Contact person:

Leon Merkx

Other people involved:
  • Hans-Martin Duringhof (TNO)

  • Jan Friso Groote (TU/e)

  • Pieter Cuijpers (TU/e)


Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, The Netherlands

Industrial partner:

TNO Automotive, Helmond, The Netherlands

Time period:

2005 – 2006



Algebraic Software Analysis and Embedded Simulation of a Driving Robot. Leon Merkx, Hans-Martin Duringhof, Pieter Cuijpers. 2007 Summer Computer Simulation Conference (SCSC) in San Diego, CA. Also appeared as technical report. See also Generic Driving Actuator and (DOI) <>